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Thai Particles


A non-tonal language such as English uses stress and tone to change the feeling and mood of a sentence. Asking someone to "Come here!", depending on the tone of the voice, can completely change the meaning from a mild entreaty to a forceful command.
A tonal language like Thai, where the meaning of a word is determined by the tone or pitch of the voice - uses words, usually tacked onto the end of a sentence, called particles (ŧ), to convey emotion and feeling. These particles are used in Thai because if you tried to express feeling and mood through intonation of voice, it may interfere with the tone (and therefore meaning) of a word.

As well as mood particles, and as a likely reflection of the hierarchical and class structure of Thai society, Thai also has several polite particles such as KHRAP Ѻ, KHA /, KHRAP-PHOM Ѻ etc (see below) which are added to the end of a sentence to indicate deference and respect to the addressee.
Polite particles play an important role in Thai culture where face and harmonius relations are often at a premium. Use of the appropriate polite particle in a sentence can add just the right amount of politeness for a given situation.

To summarize, these particles, which are unnecessary in English, add feeling, mood, deference and politeness to Thai speech.

Particles are used in informal Thai, that is, Thai as used in everyday speech, Internet chat rooms, message boards and comics etc. However, no particles (with the exception of some of the polite particles) are used in formal Thai. For example, if you as a government official write a formal letter to your colleagues or your superiors, particles will be omitted completely. This also applies to Ministerial Regulations, Royal Decrees, Ministerial Notifications, Judgments, and the like.

Particles come naturally to native Thai speakers and they don't really think too much about them. Westerners learning the Thai language however, are often particularly interested in speech particles because they can, in the most extreme cases, completely change the mood (and therefore meaning) of a sentence and are thus very useful words to be aware of.
For example:
ARAI NA ù - What is it? (NA is a polite particle or softener).
ARAI WA - What the hell do you want? (WA - Impolite particle).
PAI NAI MAI JA ˹Ҩ - Where have you been, dear? (JA can be used as a polite, caring particle).
PAI NAI MA WA ˹ - Where the hell have you been? (eg may be said if you're late for a date etc).

Despite their importance, particles are invariably poorly explained and neglected in Thai-English dictionaries.
This web page attempts to redress this and lists all the particles that I am aware of. I have endeavoured to distinguish between literary, colloquial and gender forms, since some particles are only used in one instance. The list of particles is arranged in transliterated alphabetical order, to make searching them easier. Also included is a smaller section on exclamatory particles (طҹ). I hope the information gathered here will be of some use to you.
Mastering Thai particles will set you on course to speak as fluently and naturally as a native Thai speaker. Enjoy!

As a final point, it should be noted that:
Except for the polite words KHRAP Ѻ and KHA / (see below), the use of particles depends on a person's individual speaking style: some people use them a lot, others don't. In general they add informality and playfulness to spoken Thai. (Reference (2), P.287).

Particle Index

AH! (l) /
AH! DI! д
AI! (f)
DEH! (h) - see entry for DI!
DI! (l)
DUAY (f)
FA! (h)
FUH-EE (h)
HA! (h)
HA! (f)
HAE! (h)
HUR! (l)
JA //
JI! (l)
KHA! (h) /KHA! (f)
KHA (r)
KHA! (f)-THAN (f) зҹ
KHRAP! (h) Ѻ
KHRAP! (h)-PHOM! (r) Ѻ
KHRAP! (f)-THAN (f) Ѻҹ
LA! (f)
LA! (h)
LAE! (l)
MANG! (h)
NA! (h)
NA! (f)
NAE! (l) แหน่ะ
NAW (r) ˹
NAW! (h) , NUR! (h) and NUR (h)
NEE (f)
NEE (f)-NA
NI! (h)
NIA (f)
NOI (l) ˹
PHA! (h) - YA! (f) - KHA! (f) Ф
PHAY - KA! (h) ྤ
RAWK (l) ͡
SA! (h)
SA! (h) NOI (l) ˹
SI! (h)
THUH! (l)/THUHT (l) /Դ
UH-EE //
WA! (h)/WA! (f)/WOEY (h) //
YA! (h)/YA! (f) /

Thai Particle List

AH! (l) /
Does not dramatically change the meaning of a sentence; is used in Spoken Thai mainly by teenagers. It seems to be a more informal form of NA or LA (see entries below for NA and LA).

Reference 1, P. 131, describes AH! (l) as a shortened version of LA! (f) (see entry below).
PAI THAM MAI AH! 价 - Why are you going?

Reference 2, P. 292: This comes from NA (see below). It's used informally at the end of questions.
GIN ARAI AH Թ - What are you eating?
THAM ARAI AH - What are you doing?
KHRAI AH - Who is it?

I have also seen it used at the end of statements.
A: NGUANG MAI KRAP ǧѺ - Are you tired?
B: NIT NOI AH Դ˹ - A little.

A: KHEUN NEE PAI NAI MA ׹˹- Where have you been tonight?
B: DOO NANG AH ˹ѧ - Went to the movies.

A: LAEW AH-GAHT THEE-NAN PEN NGAI BAHNG ҡȷ䧺ҧ - And what's the weather like there?
B: AH-GAHT RAWN AH...BAHNG THEE FON GAW TOK ҡ͹...ҧս絡 - Hot, with some rain.

YAI MA YOO MEUANG THAI SI...MEUANG THAI NA-YOO AH ͧ...ͧ¹ - Come and live in Thailand...Thailand's a very attractive country to live in!

Sometimes used on its own means 'Uhm'; sometimes used to add emphasis.
eg KHIT THEUNG AH! - Դ֧ - Miss you lots!

You can hear a couple of examples of the use of AH in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE Ҷþ麹 where MOSS calls out to her friends MUAY and PIN as they enter the haunted house:
1. MUAY...PIN...PAI NAI AH ......˹ - MUAY...PIN...Where are you going?
2. MUAY...PIN...GAE YOO NAI AH - ......˹ - MUAY...PIN...Where are you?
In these two examples, AH is equivalent to LA (f) .

AH! DI! д
This is a slang word placed at the end of statements, similar in meaning to NA SI Ы (see entries below for NA and SI). It tends to be used by teenagers.
Can be used in speech and writing.
MAN GAW YOO NAI GRAPAO AH! DI! - ѹ㹡д - It's in the bag.

A:KHAO CHEU MICHAEL REU PLAO Ҫ - Is he called Michael?
B: GAW CHAI AH! DI! д - That's right.

Another example may be if A is chatting to B and B says something incorrect, and B acknowledges this by saying "Oops!":
A: PHUT PIT LA SI ٴԴ - Did you make a mistake there?
B: GAW CHAI AH DI (NA SI) д(Ы) - Yes, I did.

AI! (f)
Particle indicating contempt, familiarity or playful banter, placed before a man's (or animal's) name.
AI! DEK KON NAN PAI NAI 硤˹ - Where's that damned boy?
AI! PHOOCHAI KON NAN ¤- That bloody man!
AI! BA - You lunatic!
AI! NGOH - You Fool!
AI! HIA - You bastard!
AI! SAT! ѵ - You bastard!

Note that in Central Thai, the use of AI! (f) is generally considered rude. The exception appears to be in some of the Thai dialects; eg in Isaan dialect, AI! can be used as a term of affection when placed before someone's name.
AI! Peter or AI! Somchai .
AI! can also be used among intimates in Isaan as a 'cute putdown' if someone's cheeky eg AI MA or AI (name), where 'name' is someone's name.

The female equivalent of AI! is EE (see below), and it's used in a similar way to AI! .

Note that strictly speaking, AI is the prefix for males and EE for females, but in practice AI can also sometimes be used for females too.
The local street vendor may call her husband AI GAE (old man) and he may likewise call her AI OO-AN ǹ (fatty) in playful banter. The use of AI rather than EE is less vulgar/offensive. (reference 9).

There is is also the similar sounding word (but with long vowel length), AI (f) , which is used in Isaan dialect to mean PHEE (older/elder brother).
NAI PHASA ISAAN THA BAWK WA AI SOMCHAI GAW MAI THEUNG SOMCHAI KHAO PEN PHEE KHUN ҹ Һ͡ ¶֧ 繾س - In Isaan dialect, if you say, AI SOMCHAI, it means he's your older/elder brother (note: not necessarily real brother, but you respect him in that way ie a PHEE-NAWNG ͧ relationship).

Reference 3, p.309 describes CHEE-OH as a particle similar in meaning to JEE-OH (see entry below for JEE-OH), although CHEE-OH is less archaic than JEE-OH and is still used in modern Thai.
It functions as an intensifier and is also used to denote the imperative.
I am not really sure if CHEE-OH is a true particle, but I have included it nevertheless for the sake of completeness.
WAN NEE SUAY CHEE-OH ѹ - Youre looking really pretty today. (Intensifier).

HAHM BORK KHWAHM LAP NEE GAP KHRAI CHEE-OH ͡ѺѺ - Dont tell this secret to anyone. Ok? (Imperative).

A: KHAO DOO NARAK JANG LUHY Ҵٹѡѧ - She looks really cute.
B: CHAI...NARAK TA TOH CHEE-OH ...ѡ - Yes, cute with really big eyes. (Intensifier).

HEUNG (l) CHEE-OH - Very stinky!

NA-SON CHEE-OH ʹ - Very interesting!

MA SA DEUK CHEE-OH ҫд֡ - You've come so late!

LAW CHEE-OH - Really Handsome!

NA-RAK CHEE-OH ѡ - How cute!

Reference 4, p. 147:
A word added for emphasis, right, really, indeed
ǹ - Do it right now!

DI! (l)
Particle placed at the end of a sentence to denote the imperative, emphasis or request. Similar in meaning to SI! (see below) - but more informal. Used by both males and females. A fairly common particle and I have come across it in Internet chat rooms and in speech. It tends to be used amongst friends (equal in status), or to people younger than you, but is not really suitable for use with elders. I came across one report stating that it's only used by children, but I have seen it used by people in their 20s, so I don't think this is correct.
PHUT DI ٴ - Say something! (imperative).
CHAI DI! - That's right! (emphasis).
MAI ROO DI - I don't know (emphasis).
CHUAY NOI DI ˹´ - Help me, ok? (request).
BORK KHAO DI ͡Ҵ - Do tell him! (imperative).
SONG ROOP MA DI ʧٻҴ - Send your photo (imperative).
SONG MA THANG FILE DI ʧҷҧ - Send it by file (imperative).
PIM THAI DI ´ - Type Thai [Not English] (imperative).

You can hear an example of DI in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE Ҷþ麹 where MOSS calls out to her friends MUAY and PIN as they enter the haunted house:
MUAY...PIN...RAW DUAY DI ......ʹ´ - MUAY...PIN...Wait for me!

DI can also sometimes be spelt/pronounced in reduced form as DEH! (h) . As far as I understand it, DEH and DI are equivalent, just different styles.
HUH-EE MUA LAEW...THAM DEE DEE DEH ...Ӵ - Hey, it's wrong. Do it properly! (taken from a Thai cartoon).

LONG LAEW AH DEH ŧ - Lost, aren't we! (taken from a Thai cartoon).

DUAY (f)
A softener (makes things sound more polite).
Reference (1), P. 130: This particle is typically used in polite requests, apologies and cries for help...
CHECK BIN DUAY - Can I have the bill please?
SIA JAI DUAY NA 㨴¹ - I'm sorry (sad).
CHUAY DUAY ´ - Help!
PLAE DUAY Ŵ - Please translate it.
KHAW MAY-NOO DUAY ٴ - Can I have the menu?
CHUAY THAM HAI MAI PHET MAHK DUAY ·ҡ - Can you make it not too spicy?

You can hear an example of DUAY in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE Ҷþ麹 where MOSS calls out to her friends MUAY and PIN as they enter the haunted house:
MUAY...PIN...RAW DUAY DI ......ʹ´ - MUAY...PIN...Wait for me!

The female equivalent of AI! (see above), used in a similar way to AI! . As with AI! , it can be used to indicate variously: contempt, familiarity or playful banter.
Rude examples include:
EE DORK մ͡- You whore/harlot!
EE GAE RAENG THEUNG! 駷 - You old hag!
EE MA - You dog!

FA! (h)
Similar in meaning to WA! / (see below), but a little politer. Can be used by both males and females. OK to use amongst friends, but outside this group likely to be taken as rude/impolite.
KHAO PEN KHRAI FA ໹ÿ - Who the hell is he?

KHUR-EE SONG-SAI TUA ENG WA LEUAK RIAN PHASA NEE THAM-MAI FA ʧµͧ͡¹ҹ - I thought to myself, why the hell (why on earth) did I choose to learn this language?

THAM-MAI KHAO MSN MAI DAI FA...SENG LUHY...KHRAI MEUAN RAO BAHNG AH MSN Ѕ...͹Һҧ - Why the hell cant I log on to MSN? Im really fed up. Anyone else got the same problem?

NAH-BEUA LAEW...KHAO MA THAM-MAI FA ...ҷ - I'm bored. Why the hell did I come here?

ARAI FA ÿ - What the hell is it/do you want?

FUH-EE (h)
Similar in meaning to WOEY (see below). Can be used by both males and females. I think this is quite a rare particle.
Informal, used in Spoken Thai.
MAI CHEUA LAEW NA FUH-EE ǹ - I don't believe you! (But said in an impolite way - the use of FUH-EE makes this impolite).

TOO JEP KHAW FUH-EE...MAI MEE SIANG 纤...§ - I've got a sore throat and lost my voice!

HUR...RAWN FUH-EE...THAM-MAI MAN RAWN YAHNG NEE ͹ ѹ͹ҧ - Sigh. It's damn hot. Why is it so hot?

As with WA/WOEY (see entry below), FUH-EE can be used amongst friends and intimates but is likely to be taken as impolite with strangers.

Perhaps, maybe, to presume. Formal form of MANG (see below), used in writing, not speech.
Reference (3):
A particle used to express doubt or sarcasm rather than a straight question.
KHUN AHT-JA MAI RANGIAT GRA-MANG سҨѧ¨ѧ - Perhaps you don't mind.

HA! (h)
Less formal version of KRAP!/KHA! Ѻ/ used with friends/intimates. Can be used by both males and females.

HA! (f)
A less formal version of KHA! (f) , used by females.
You can hear an example of HA (f) in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE Ҷþ麹, said by MOSS to her mother when she offers her some food:
IM LA HA - I'm full.

HAE (h)
This particle seems to be mainly used in the context of denoting/emphasising uncertainty or when you ponder something:
eg (reference 5):
A: KHROO GAP AHJAHN TAHNG-GAN YAHNG RAI ١ѺҨҧѹҧ - What's the difference between 'AHJAHN' and 'KHROO'?
B: REUANG NEE TAWP YARK HAE ͧͺҡ - Wow! This is difficult, eeh!

A: THEE ANGRIT GEE MONG LAEW ѧɡ - What time is it in England now?
B: MAI ROO HAE - Gee, I dont know...

GONG HAE - I'm really confused!

GRA-THOO NEE JENG...CHAWP HAE з...ͺ! - That's a really neat question. I like it! [Here HAE seems to be used for emphasis].

KHRAI KHA NIA...JAM MAI DAI HAE ä... - Who's this? I can't remember (you)...

HUR! (l)
A particle similar in meaning to TUH! (see separate entry in this table for this particle), but more informal.
Used to denote the imperative.
OK to use amongst friends, but likely to be taken as impolite/too familiar if used with strangers.
You can hear an example of its use in the Thai film 'SOM BANK MEU MAI HAT KHAI' (2001) ( ầ Ѵ - SOM and BANK Learn to Sell), where BANK tells his girlfriend SOM to stop working in the bar:
SOM...LUHK HUR! ...ԡ - SOM...Quit (your job), ok?

Another example can be heard in the film Last Life in the Universe, where NOI says to her Japanese friend KENJI:
GLAP BAHN HUR Ѻҹ - Let's go home.

More examples:
PLOI KHAO PAI HUR - Let him go.
AHP HUR Һ - Have a wash.
PAI GAN HUR 仡ѹ - Let's go.
PAI KHUI GAP KON EUN HUR 令¡Ѻ - Go and chat with someone else.
PUHT FAI HUR Դ - Switch on the light.
PAI NAWN HUR 仹͹ - Go to bed!
CHANG MAN HUR...LUHK KHUI GAP KHAO HUR ҧѹ...ԡ¡Ѻ - Who cares/forget it!...stop chatting with him.

As mentioned previously, HUR is likely to be taken as impolite if used with strangers. A politer way to say 'switch on the light' with someone might be eg:
PUHT FAI HAI NOI SI KHA Դ˹«Ԥ - Please switch on the light.

There are 3 forms of JA in common usage, namely, JA! (h) , JA! (f) and JA (r) (see the three entries below for more detail), differing in tone and vowel length. They have varied and different uses. On a very basic level, they may be thought of as less formal versions of KHRAP/KHA Ѻ//.

reference 2:
[JA! (h)/JA! (f) /] are more friendly and informal than KHRAP/KHA Ѻ//. The pronunciation is high/short with questions or when you're offering something to someoneand falling/short with responses

In my experience, when you hear a new Thai acquaintance of the opposite sex begin to replace the more formal KHRAP/KHA with JA (h)/ JA (f) in their speech, it's a sign they feel more at ease in your company and that a friendship (or more) may be developing.
Men don't tend to use JA with each other, unless they are gay.
Can also sometimes be used by older men and women to younger girls/boys (under 12).

Familiar and vulgar equivalents of JA are WA / and WOEY (see entries below).

More detail on the 3 forms of JA:

JA! (h)
My dear; Particle used by a man or woman, usually to an equal or inferior, after a vocative [such] as 'THEE RAK ѡ'. (Reference 3);

Reference 1:
Used by adult male and female speakers at the end of questions when talking to children, servants or people of markedly lower social status; used as a 'sweet-talk' question particle between males and females or as a 'best friends' question particle between females; used after the name of a child, servant or inferior to attract that person's attention; used in polite requests after the particle SI! .
THUR JA PAI GAP CHAN MAI JA - ͨ仡Ѻѹ - Will you go with me?

THAM-MAI LA JA...MEE ARAI REU PLAO Ш... - Why...Is there something the matter?

You can hear an example of JA (h) in the Thai film JAN GA-PHAW ѹо when PHILAI tells her employee/love interest in the film to go and rest after he is roughed up by the police:
KHON JEP...THAM MAI MAI PAI PHAK PHAWN JA ...仾ѡ͹ - You're in pain, why don't you go and rest?

JA! (f)
Yes; a term of assent.

Reference 1:
Used by adult male and female speakers at the end of a statement when speaking to children, servants and people of inferior status; between males and females denotes anything from easy familiarity to 'sweet talk'; between females signals 'best friends talk'; used as a response when one's name is called (when the vowel is often lengthened to JA (f) ); used in isolation as a 'yes' response; used to reassure speaker of one's attention (JA (f) ҅JA (f)҅JA (f) ) when the vowel is normally lengthened; used after MAI (f) to mean 'No'.
A: KHUN JA PAI CHIENG MAI MAI JA س§ - Will you go to Chieng Mai?
B: PAI JA 仨 - Yes.

B: JA KHAO MA SI ҫ - Yes, come in.

JA (f) can often be used by a parent to child, to soften the sentence and show love.
MAE RAK LOOK JA...NAHNG FAH KHAWNG MAE ѡ١ ҧҢͧ - Mother loves you my angel.

You can hear an example of JA (f) in the Thai film JAN GA-PHAW ѹо when INTHAWN Թ offers to walk his employer/love interest PHILAI back to the house as a safety precaution against the murderer who is still at large. PHILAI replies:
YA LUH-EE...DEUK LAEW JA - ...֡Ǩ - Don't worry (it's not necessary). It's late.

As a final example of JA (f) , I once heard a taxi driver talking to a lady while driving her to her destination. As she listened to him, she periodically replied JA (f) to him to indicate that she was following what he was saying.

JA (r)
Particle used to answer a call or indicate that the preceding noun is in the vocative case. Can be used by a woman or man. Can also be used to show tenderness and intimacy between girlfriend and boyfriend when placed after a person's name. I remember one Thai girl saying with a sparkle in her eyes how she loved when her boyfriend used JA (r) after her name when speaking to her. However, it's most probably best to use JA (r) sparingly with a partner, since overuse may leave you sounding too sugary-sweet and insincere.

Reference (2):
This is flowery language used with your mother, child or spouse. It shows more tenderness than the previous JA
A: THEE-RAK JA ѡ - Darling...?
B: JA...MEE ARAI ROR JA THEE-RAK ͨзѡ - Yes dear, did you want something?

THEE RUK JA SABAI DEE MAI ѡ ʺ´- How are you, my dear?

Note that JA (long, rising) should not be used in interrogative sentences ie to end questions eg the following would be incorrect:
NEE ARAI JA è ѡ - What's this my dear?
and would be better written:
NEE ARAI JA è ѡ - What's this my dear?

You can hear an example of JA in the thai film Born to Fight, when the local village NAK LENG ѡŧ (tough guy), THAP Ѿ, calls out to MALI , the object of his affections:
MALI JA ...PAI NAI JA Ԩ...˹ - Mali darling..where are you going?

As a final point, it should be noted that while both men and women can use JA //, a few Thais I have talked to say that over-use of JA by males, may give the impression you're gay. The exception appears to be when sweet-talking a girl, Thai men will sometimes use JA to soften their speech and create a favourably 'sweet impression'.

This particle is archaic and not really used in modern Thai, but is included here for the sake of completeness. Modern usage of however, can be used to denote humour, although its quite rare.

Reference 3, p. 262: A particle used as an intensive only in questions or commands; KHAO JA THAM YAHNG NAN JEE-OH REU - Ҩзҧ - Will he do quite that? PAI DEEOW NEE JEE-OH - ǹ - Go this very moment. - Synonyms , Դ, , .

JI! (l)
Particle placed at the end of a sentence, similar in meaning to SI (see below). An informal particle, rarely used in speech, mainly used in Internet chat rooms.
Not used in writing.
Used by both males and females.
1. A: YANG YOO PA ѧ - Are you still there?
B: YOO JI - I'm still here.
2. MAI ROO JI - I don't know. (adds emphasis here).
3. MA JI Ҩ - Come on/come here (imperative).
4. AO JI Ҩ - I want it/something (imperative).
5. KHAO MA JI Ҩ - Come on in. (imperative).

KHA! (h) /KHA! (f)
Sir, madam, yes, yes sir, yes madam.
This is the most common polite particle used by females (and GATOEY ). As a general rule, KHA (h) is used at the end of questions, KHA (f) at the end of statements.
An exception to this female-only-usage rule appears to be if a man is sweet-talking his girlfriend/spouse etc. He may then use KHA to convey intimacy and sensitivity. For example, he may say FAN DEE NA KHA ѹչФ or FAN DEE KHA ѹդ (sweet dreams/sleep tight!) to express warmth and caring. Or he could say RAK KHA...KHIT THEUNG KHA ѡ...Դ֧ - Love you...miss you!
Another exception is when a man is talking to a child (female), he may again use KHA (h) to show a sense of caring.
Unless you are a very accomplished Thai speaker, it's most probably best not to try to use KHA in these ways though.

KHA (r)
This is a variant of KHA! / (see above). It is a polite and sweet-sounding particle, similar in meaning to JA (r) (see above), but restricted to female usage.
Usually used to gain attention or respond to someone calling you.
Girl: KHUN MAE KHA س - Mother...?
Mother: KHA - Yes dear? [Denotes affection here.]

THUH JEUNG REEP WING PAI FAWNG KHUN KHROO WA "KHUN KHROO KHA SOMCHAI KHAO GLAENG NOO KHA" ֧ͨպ仿ͧس "س٢ ..˹٤" - So she ran to the teacher and complained: Sir, SOMCHAI has been annoying me!" [Used to show politeness/respect to the teacher].

PAW KHA CHUAY CHAN DUAY ͢Ҫ©ѹ - Daddy, please help me.

PHEE James KHA...YOO THEE NAI KHA ...˹ - James?...where are you?

PAW KHA NOO KHAW PAI SEU LUK OM DAI MAI KHA ͢ ˹٢仫١ - Daddy, can I go out and buy some sweets?

Reference 3, P. 139: Particle used by a woman to answer a call or to indicate that the preceding noun is the vocative case.

KHA! (f)-THAN (f) зҹ
Yes Sir.
This is a polite form of KHA (h)/KHA (f) (see above) used by females to older people, superiors (eg a boss, senior officer) etc to show respect. It's similar in meaning and usage to KHRAP (h)-PHOM (r) (see below).
Can also sometimes be used between friends to express a sense of PRA-CHOT PRA-CHAN ЪЪѹ (v. to be sarcastic) when asked to do something 'you're not entirely happy about doing'.
The male equivalent is KHRAP! (h)-THAN (f) Ѻҹ.

KHRAP! (h) Ѻ
Sir, madam, yes, yes sir, yes madam.
This is the most common particle used by males if you want to sound polite. Its use is restricted to males only, and it can be used to address any age group, even to people younger than yourself, such as children.

One exception to this male-only-usage rule is that older women can sometimes use KHRAP to young boys. It's used to teach them both politeness and the correct male particle for a boy, and is often utilized in the context of trying to get them to do something or to try to convince them of something.
FANG PA NA KHRAP ѧҹФѺ - Listen to your auntie please.
Unless you are a very accomplished Thai speaker, it's most probably best not to try to use KHRAP in this way though.
You can hear an example of this female usage of KHRAP in the Thai film The Closet, when TAM says he's hungry, and his mother tells him to wait:
MAE : AW...KHRAP...KHRAP...PAEP NEUNG NA LOOK NA ..Ѻ 꺹֧١ - Yes, Yes. Just a minute.

Another example of women using KHRAP is that a mother may use KHRAP to her daughter when playing the 'role of the father speaking to the child', although this is relatively rare, and as might be expected, KHA is the most often used particle by mother to young daughter (reference 13).

I have also heard KHRAP Ѻ used amongst lesbians. It's usually the 'butch' THAWM one that uses it, rather than the the 'fem' DEE (f) one.

KHRAP (h)-PHOM (r) Ѻ
Can be translated as 'Yes sir', or 'yes'. A very polite form of KHRAP (h) (see above). Used when wanting to show special respect to someone eg a pupil when addressing a teacher, a shop assistant to a customer, or a taxi driver to a passenger. If you hear a taxi driver using this with you, the chances are you'll get a good journey, without too many detours.
Sometimes used in a humorous or sarcastic way in response to eg a girlfriend bossing you around.
It's also used in the military by junior soldiers when addressing higher-ranking officers. Female junior soldiers use the equivalent KHA (f)-THAN (f) зҹ (see above) in this situation.
I have most often heard it used by males, although it can apparently also be used by females to address males they are familiar with, and by females to younger boys.
You will also occasionally hear older people using it with younger people too. Apparently it's a 'sign of manners' to do so, and is quite normal, despite the age disparity.
Not to be confused with the male personal pronoun GRA (l)-PHOM (r) м (meaning 'I').

LA! (f)
Comes from . Has varied meanings and uses. When placed at the end of a sentence indicates a mild entreaty
LAEW KHUN LA Ǥس - And how about you?
THAM MAI LA - Why?/why not?
THUR JA PAI GAP PHOM MAI LA ͨ仡Ѻ - Are you going with me?
TAE THAM MAI MAI HA NGAHN THAM LA KHA ҧҹФ - But why aren't you looking for any work?

Can be used to soften negative replies:
A: KHEUN NEE PAI TEEOW MAI KRAP ׹Ѻ - Are you going out tonight?
B: MAI LA - No.

Also can convey a feeling of irritation, similar to 'why on earth?'
THAM MAI KHUN MAI DAI BORK POM LA س͡ - Why on earth didn't you tell me?

LA! (f) is sometimes shortened to AH! (f) in speech (see above for entry for AH!).

Note that in normal speech, apparently LA! (f) is actually pronounced with a low tone, as though it's spelt LA (l) , unless it's followed by KHRAP Ѻ or KHA , when it takes a high tone.
You will often see LA spelt informally as (eg on the internet) to reflect this low tone.

LA! (h)
A shortened form of LAEW .
Can indicate a state or situation has been reached or is about to change
PAI LA - I'm going.
POR LA - That's enough.
DEE LA - That's fine.
THOOK LA ١ - That's right.
POM GLAP BAHN LA Ѻҹ - I'm going home.

Can also be used to show mild irritation when used with EEK ա
MA EEK LA ա - You're back again.

LAE! (l)
Reference 3, P.1008: A particle used for emphasis in a similar manner to LA! (f) , having the mild force of just here, just there or just that.
PHOM PHUT DAI PIANG THAO NEE LAE ٴ§ҹ - That's all I can say about it.

KHAO ORK PAI SIA DEEO NEE ENG LAE ͡ǹͧ - He just went out (you just missed him).

KHUN MEE KHOR GAE TUA THAO NEE ENG LAE ROR سբҹͧ - Is that your only excuse? (Is that all you have to say for yourself?).

A: MEU-RAI JA RIAN JOP KHA ¹Ѻ - When will you graduate?
B: PEE NEE LAE KA չФ - This summer. (ie this very year).

A: THAM ARAI NOI SI...KHUN GIN ARAI THEUNG SUAY ˹«...سԹö֧ - Might I ask, what do you eat to look so beautiful?
B: GIN MEUAN THEE KHUN GIN NA LAE Թ͹سԹ˹ - I eat just the same as you.

A: KHUN JUR KHAO THEE NAI KRAP سͷ˹Ѻ - Where did you meet her? B: THEE NEE LAE - Here (ie in this very place).

RAO THAM NGAAN HOK WAN KHA THEE MEUANG THAI GOR THAM NGAAN YAHNG NEE LAE ҷӧҹ 6 ѹ ͧ¡ӧҹҧ - I work 6 days a week. That's the way it is in Thailand.

A: PHLEHNG NAI THEE PEN NEUNG NAI JAI KHUN TALAWT GAHN ŧ˹໧˹㨤اʹ - Which song is always on your mind?
B: UHM...PHLEHNG ARAI ROR...LAI PHLEHNG AH...MAI ROO... YAHK JANG...JING JING KHAWNG AVRIL...THUK PHLEHNG...PHEE CHORP MOT LAE ŧ ŧ ҡѧ ԧ ͧ Avril ءŧ ͺ UhmWhich song?Many songs. I don't know. That's difficult. Actually all of Avril's songs. I Just like all of them.

Reference 4, P. 550:
NAN LAE - That's it; that's the way it is; just so; indeed; yep; that very
PIM DEET KREUANG NAN LAE CHAI MA 50 PEE - մͧ - That very typewriter was used for 50 years.

NEE LAE - Just like I said; you see; what did you expect?; just
MAI CHAI NAM SOM, MAI CHAI NAM WAAN, NAM RORN NEE LAE ҹ ͹ - Not orange juice, not a soft drink, just hot water.

Dictionaries translate LUH-EE variously asinter aliaat all, beyond, too much, to surpass, to top, so, too, past, on past a place, further, and then, so then, definitely, consequently etc, so I'm not really sure LUH-EE is a true particle since it's adequately described by these definitions. Nevertheless, it does seem to have particle-like properties when placed after verbs and phrases, where it's often used to denote emphasis, so I have included it here for the sake of completeness.
CHAI LUH-EE - How right that it is!

MEUANG THAI NA-YOO THEE-SUT NAI LOHK LUH-EE ͧ¹شš - Thailand's the best place in the world to live!

A: LAW PAO ͻ - Handsome?
B: SUT KHAWNG KHWAHM LAW LUH-EE KHA شͧ¤ - The height of good looks!

KHUN HAI GAMLANG JAI DEE MAHKRAO YIM YUH LUH-EE سѧ㨴ҡ - You're so encouragingI'm smiling so much!

KHUN GENG MAHK LUH-EE سҡ - You're so clever!

PHASA THAI PHEE YEE-UM LUH-EE KHA ¾¤! - Your Thai is really excellent!

A: SABAI DEE MAI JA ʺ´ - How are you?
B: MAI DEE LUH-EEMAI SABAI - …ʺ - Not good at all. I'm not well.

A: KHAO PHUT ARAI Ҿٴ - What did he say?
B: KHAO MAI DAI PHUT ARAI LUH-EE ٴ - He didn't say anything at all.

DEE JANG LUH-EE ըѧ - That's good! (shows happiness). [The use of LUH-EE here indicates a greater degree of happiness than if it's left out].

YEE-UM YAWT LUH-EE JA ʹ ¨ - Brilliant!

A: KHAO JAI MAI KHRAP Ѻ - Do you understand?
B: KHAO JAI JAEM JAENG LUH-EE KHA ¤ - I understand perfectly clearly!

MANG (h)
Maybe, perhaps, I guess. Informal version of GRA-MANG (see above).
KIT WA KHAO KONG JA MAI CHORP MANG ԴҤͺ - I think she might not like it.

SAI WAEN DEE GWA MANG 蹴ա - Maybe you need glasses! (spectacles).

TAWN NEE AH-GAHT NAO KHA...YEN...PAH-YOO! KHAO MANG KHA ͹ҡ˹Ǥ 駤 - Now it's cold and chilly. Might be a storm coming.

HAHK MEUANG THAI MEE HI-MA MANG GAW DEE SI NA ҡͧ駡ʹԹ - If Thailand were to have some snow, that'd be great!

NA (h)
This is a polite particle indicating a mild question; also used to seek agreement or confirmation. It's also a softener, making speech seem less abrupt. Can also be used to soften warnings. Can be translated variously as you know,you see?,isn't it?, please, okay?

Reference 3, P. 487: A particle used at the end of a sentence to show that it is a command or an entreaty (the imperative mood).

FANG NA ѧ - Listen (used at the beginning of a sentence, to get attention).
YA BORK KHAO NA Һ͡ҹ - Don't tell her, OK?
PAI NA 仹 - Let's go, ok?
WAN NEE NAO NA ѹ˹ǹ - It's cold today, isn't it?
RAWANG NAROT MA ѧ ö- Careful. There's a car coming.
MAO MAI KHAP NA - Ѻ - Don't drink and drive.
KHORP KHUN MAHK NA KRAP ͺسҡФѺ - Many thanks.
FAN DEE NA - ѹչ - Sweet dreams! (softener/entreaty).

NA is often combined with the particles KHRAP or KHA (see separate entries above for KHRAP AND KHA) for extra politeness.
SAM-RAP GAN WOHT NAI KHRANG NEE GAW TAWNG KHAW KHAWP KHUN THUK THAN THEE DAI WOHT HAI PHOM DUAY EEK KHRANG NA KHRAP Ѻǵ㹤駹 ͧ͢ͺسءҹǵա駹ФѺ - As regards the voting this time, well, may I thank everybody who voted for me again.

KHAWP KHUN MAHK NA KHA SAM-RAP GART OO-AY PAWN PEE MAI ͺسҡФ Ѻ¾û - Thanks very much for the New Year's greeting card.

NA (f)
Similar in meaning to NA (h) (see above); can be used to mean please when trying to persuade a (perhaps) reluctant person
YIM NOI NA ˹¹- Smile! (said by photographer).
GIN NAMAN AROI Թ ѹ - Oh come on, eat it. It's delicious.

Can also be used to highlight the topic of a sentence, similar to the word 'right'
FARANG NAKHUN WA PEN YANG-RAI - 觹 سҧ - Farangrightwhat do you think of them?

OI JA BAWK WA...OI NA MAI GENG PHASA ANGRIT TAE YAHK KUI MAHK MAHK ¨к͡.. ¹ѧҡҡ - I just want to say...I'm not very good at English, but I'd really like to chat to you.

NAE! (l) แหน่ะ
A variation of NEE (see below).
Reference (2), P. 293: This is included to show that an amount is considered large.
OH JA SEU BAN TANG SAM LAN NAE Ыͺҹҹ˹ - Oh, you're buying a house for 3 million Baht!

NAW (r) ˹
A particle placed at the end of a question, roughly equivalent to I wonder; can be used to soften a sentence.

Reference 3:
A particle used often at the end of a rhetoric [sic] question especially when speaking to oneself; Ҩѡ˹ (˹ Ҩѡ) When shall I become wealthy? (When shall I become rich?) - S.(synonym) .

Reference 4:
An interrogative and reflective word.

KHAO JA PAI GAP RAO MAI NAW Ҩ仡Ѻ˹ - I wonder if hell go with us?
NEE KHEU ARAI NAW ˹ - I wonder what this is?
NAN JA PEN SAT ARAI NAW 蹨ѵ˹ - I wonder what kind of animal that is?
PAI NAI NAW ˹˹ - Where are we going? (taken from a Thai cartoon).

Apparently, NAW (r) ˹ (ie rising tone) is mostly used in formal writing. In speech, it tends to be pronounced as NAW (h) ie high tone.
NAW (h) is not archaic and is still used in colloquial Thai.

NAW! (h) , NUR! (h) and NUR (h)
The slightly similar-sounding particles NAW! (h) , NUR! (h) and NUR (h) are colloquial variants of NA (see entry above for NA ), used when seeking confirmation (reference 7).
KHUN PHIM THAI DAI DUAY...GENG NUR! س… - You can type Thai too. Skilful eh?
KHEE-RAY NAW! - Ugly, isn't it?
KHAO DOO SUAY NUR! Ҵ - She looks beautiful, doesn't she?
PLAEK NUR! š - Weird, isn't it?
EU...NA-SIA DAI DUAY NUR! ´ - Oh boy! That's a shame, isn't it?
HEUMNAHN LUH-EE NAW! ҹ - Hmm. That's a long time, isn't it?

NEE (f)
Can be used to indicate slight disagreement with an assumption implicit in a question or statement.
Can also be used for emphasis.
A: KHAO PEN FAEN KHUN ROR Όس - So he's your boyfriend?
B: MAI CHAI NEE - No, he isn't.

A: KHUN RUAY س - You're rich.
B: POM MAI RUAY NEE ¹ - No I'm not.

A: THAEW BAHN KHUN NAM MAI TUAM ROR KHA Ǻҹسͤ - It hasn't flooded in your area?
B: MAI HEN THUAM NEE 繶Ѻ - Not that I've seen.

A: NEE KHRAP BAI KHAP KHEE Ѻ 㺢Ѻ - Here's my driving licence.
B: MAI CHAI BAI KHAP KHEE THAI NEE 㺢Ѻ¹ - This isn't a Thai driving licence.

A: MAEWAN NEE KHAO DOO SUAY JANG LUHY ...ѹҴ¨ѧ - Goodness! Today she looks really pretty.
B: GAWSUAY THUK WAN NEE KRAP ·ءѹѺ - She looks pretty everyday.

A: KHUN DOO SUAY س - You look beautiful.
B: PAHK WAAN NEE KHUN NA ҡҹس - You smoothy! (Lit. you sweet mouth!)

DEEO TEE SIA NEE ǵ¹ - I will hit you!

A: KHUN PHUUT ANGRIT GENG MAHK KHRAP...PHOM MAI DAI GLAENG CHOM SA-NOI سٴѧҡѺ...駪˹ - Your English is great. I'm not just saying that!
B: GLAENG CHOM AH JI...KHRAI JA PAI GLA PHUUT WA PHASA ANGRIT KHUN NEE YAE JING JING 駪 Ҩ...¨仡Ҿٴ ѧɤسԧ ... - Yes you are. Who would dare say to someone that their English is really terrible? Ha ha...
Here NEE is used for emphasis/stress. You could leave the NEE out of B's response and it would still mean the same, although with less emphasis. A bit like the difference between terrible and really terrible.

NEE (f)-NA
The meaning of this particle appears to depend on the context its used in, but its mainly used for emphasis.
Actually, NEE is the particle, and NA is added for euphony and to soften the sentence.
KHUN PEN KHON THAI NEE-NA س繤¹ - So youre Thai, arent you!? (emphasizes sudden discovery of hitherto unknown fact).

WAN NEE LOI GRATONG NEE-NA ѹ¡з - It's Loi Grathong day today!

MAE GOR PIM THAI DAI NEE-NA...THAM-MAI THEUNG MAI YAWM PHUT LA ֧ٴ - Jeez! You can type Thai! Why didnt you say?

KHAO MAI DAI YAK JA MA PEN PHEUAN SOMCHAI JING JING NEE-NA ҡ͹¨ԧ - He really didnt want to be Somchais friend. Not a bit!

KHAO KHAO JAI PHIT LAEW NEE-NA 㨼Դǹ - She misunderstood.

A: DICHAN MAI KHAO JAI KHA ԩѹ㨤 - I dont understand.
B: CHAN DAI BORK SING THEE KHUN THAM LAEW NEE-NA ѹ͡觷سǹ - Ive told you already!

OH! FARANG NEE-NA (NEUK WA PEN KON THAI) THAM MAI PHUT PHASA THAI GENG JANG ! 觹 (֡Ҥ) ٴ觨ѧ - Oh! Youre FARANG! (I thought you were Thai). How come you speak Thai so well?
Actually NEE is the particle, and NA is added to soften the sentence. So the above sentence could also be written exactly as above, but without the NA , and retain the same meaning. (Reference 9).

PEN KHWAHM PHIT KHORNG THUH PHRAW THUR THAM NEE-NA 繤Դͧͷӹ - Its youre fault because you did it! (reference 10).

A: JAM PHOM DAI MAI KHRAP ӼѺ - Can you remember me?
B: KHUN CHEU SOMCHAI...MA JAHK SURIN...CHAI MAI KHA س...ҨҡԹ... - You're Somchai from Surin..aren't you?
A: CHAI LUR-EE...JAM GENG NEE-NA ...觹 - That's right! You've got a good memory!

I saw one report stating that NEE-NA is only used by females, but I've encountered it used by males too, so I don't think this is correct.

Reference 11:
Particle marking an utterance as an explanation or as an answer to a question.

Used as a response to show that you think something is self-evident. Seems in some instances to be roughly equivalent to the English expression 'Of course!'.
A: MAN YOO THEE-NAI - ѹ˹ - Where is it?
B: HAI LAEW NGAI - - But I've given it to you already.

A: KHUN RAK KHRAI - سѡ - Who do you love?
B: KHUN NGAI - س - You of course!

A: KHUN YOO THEE NAI س˹ - Where are you?
B: BORK LAEW NGAI ͡ - I've told you already.

Thai joke:
Q: DEUAN THEE NEUNG MEE BAHN...DEUAN THEE SAWNG MEE ROT...DEUAN THEE SAHM MEE ARAI ͹˹պҹ ͹ͧö ͹ - The first month of the year I had a house, the second month I had a car. What about the third month?

NI! (h)
Similar to SI .
KHAW WELA PLAE NI - Ź - I need some time to translate it.
I think this particle is exclusive to Southern Thai dialect, although it will sometimes creep into Central Thai being spoken by people from the South. Shares the same meaning as SI .

NIA (f)
This particle is a short form of and can mean 'this one' or 'this'. It's used for emphasis and occurs in two main situations:

1. Adds emphasis (or surprise) to statements and questions; shows you'd really like to know the answer to a question.
ARAI NIA - What's this???

KHUN AH-YOO THAO-RAI NIA س - How old are you?

KHUN GIN ARAI NIA سԹ - What are you eating???

YOO NAI NIA ˹ - Where are you?

RAO JA PAI NAI GAN NIA Ҩ˹ѹ - Where are we going?

THAM ARAI YOO NIA - What are you doing?

KON THAI REU ANGRIT NIA ѧɤ - Are you Thai or English?

...ҨԷ»շ...ѧҧҹ - He's graduated from university last year, but is still unemployed!

MAI DAI JUR GAN NAHN LUHY NA NIA ͡ѹҹ¹ - Long time no see!

2. Can be placed behind a noun or person's name to add emphasis to that noun and to refer back to what is being talked about.
KHAM WA PROSTATE GLAND NIAPHASA THAI WA ARAI prostate gland … -Prostate gland...How do you say that in Thai?

MAE KHUN NIA WAN NEE TAENG TUA SUAY س...ѹ觵- My goodness...look at you! You've dressed up nicely today!

JAMES NIA...KHRAI AH ... - James? Who's that?

COURT BAED THEE SUAN LUM NIA...YOO TRONG NAI KHRAP Ẵǹ ç˹Ѻ - The badminton courts at Lumpini Park. Where are they?

NOI (l) ˹
Can be translated as 'a little'. Used with requests to lessen the degree of imposition.
KAW KHAO NOI DAI MAI ͢˹ - Can I have a little rice?
KAW TAHM ARAI NOI SI Ͷ˹ - Can I ask you something?
KOR DOO NOI DAI MAI ʹ˹ - Can I have a look?
PURT PRADOO NOI Դе˹ - Open the door!
NGIAP NGIAP NOI º ˹ - Quiet please; a little less noise please.
KHAW NAM CHA PHUHM NOI KHRUP ͹Ӫ˹¤Ѻ - Can I have a little more tea please.
JOOP PHOM NOI ٺ˹ - Kiss me. (imperative).
HAI KHAM PRUEK-SA CHAN NOI ӻ֡ҩѹ˹ - Give me some advice, please.

PHA! (h) - YA! (f) - KHA! (f) Ф
Version of KHRAP Ѻ to be used by a man to royalty.

PHAY - KHA (h) ྤ
Version of KHA / used by a woman to royalty.

RAWK (l) ͡
Used after a negative statement to make it seem milder or convey a humble attitude.
A: KHUN PHUT THAI GENG KHA سٴ觤 - You speak Thai well.
B: MAI GENG RAWK ͡Ѻ - Not very well.
Adding RAWK to the sentence makes it sound milder and humbler.

A: WAN NEE MAI WAHNG ѹҧ - I'm not free today.
B: MAI CHEUA RAWK ͡ - I don't believe you!
The use of RAWK here softens the reply.
The equivalent in Isaan dialect is DAWK ͡.

SA (h)
This has varied meanings. See ref. (2) for a fuller explanation.
When appears at the end of a sentence indicates encouragement or means 'do it quickly'
GLAP BAAN SA Ѻҹ - Go home.

BAWK MA SA DEE DEE ͡ҫд - Come on and tell me now...

You may also hear KHAO PAI SA LAEW 仫 - He's gone already. Here SA LAEW is short for SIA LAEW and indicates the action has been completed already. (SIA is the formal form of SA ; SA is colloquial).

SA (h) NOI (l) ˹
SA NOI ˹ comes from ѡ˹ (a little) and when it appears in negative sentences (with MAI ) it has a mild intensive force, confirming and strengthening what comes before it in the sentence. It seems in some instances to have a similar function to an exclamation mark "!" or the confirmation/affirmation phrase "...you know?", which is sometimes placed at the end of sentences in English.
GOR SUAY DEE JING JING NA...MAI DAI GLAENG CHOM SA NOI ´ըԧ...駪˹ - It's really nice and pretty. I'm not just saying that (not kidding you).

MAI CHAI SA NOI ˹ - That's not true at all!

POM MAI DAI MEE ARAI GAP POOYING KON NAN SA NOI áѺ˭ԧ ˹ - I didn't have anything to do with that woman. (or in another sense, didn't have sexual relations - recall Bill Clinton's famous denial regarding Monica Lewinksy - "I did not have sexual relations with that woman.")

A: MEUA WAN GORN KHUN CHUAN CHAN PAI GIN KAO CHAI MAI? ѹ͹سǹѹ仡Թ - The other day you invited me out for a meal, didn't you?
B: POM MAI KHUR-EE CHUAN KHUN SA NOI ªǹس˹ - I have never asked you out!

You can hear an example of SA NOI in the film Tears of the Black Tiger, where RAMPOEY denies to GO that she is DAM's girlfriend:
GO: HAN NAE...FAEN AI DAM NEE JAI GLA DEE WOEY ...Όӹ㨡Ҵ - Well, how about that DAM, you've got yourself a brave girlfriend there!
RUMPOEY: BAH...MAI CHAI FAEN SA NOI ...Ό˹ - Don't be crazy. He's not my boyfriend!

Without the MAI , SA NOI functions as a softener by eg limiting the degree of imposition.
PAI LEN NAM...WANG JA KLAI RORN SA NOI 蹹...ѧФ͹˹ - Go and take a dip in the water. Hopefully that will cool you down a bit.

GIN NAM SA NOI MAI Թӫ˹ - Would you like a little water?

Reference (2): This is a shortened from SAK NOI ѡ˹ and is included with statements to minimize the action. It shouldn't be used when requesting something as it would sound too abrupt; use SAK NOI ѡ˹ instead.
DEUM BIA SA NOI SI ˹« - Have some beer.

KHOR NAM KAENG SAK NOI SI - ͹ᢧѡ˹« - Can I have a little ice?

SI! (h)
Used in the imperative and to add emphasis.
Sometimes spelt SI (l) . (Apparently SI (l) is the more formal spelling).
PURT PRADOO SI Դе٫ - Open the door. (Imperative).

PIT FAI SI Դ俫 - Switch off the light. (Imperative).

DEE SI - ի - Great! (emphasis).

A: KHUN CHORP MAI - سͺ Do you like it?
B: CHORP SI ͺ - I like it! (Emphasis).

The use of SI in the last two examples indicates a greater degree of pleasure/satisfaction than if it's not used.

NAHN LAEW SI KHA ҹǫԤ - A long time ago! (Emphasis).

YA PHOOT YANG-NGAN SI Ҿٴѧ - Dont speak like that! (Imperative).

YA NGIAP SI KHA...THEE-RAK ºԤ...ѡ - Don't be so quiet, darling. (Imperative).

PAI JUH GAN THEE London SI ͡ѹ͹͹ - Let's meet in London. (Imperative).

MA NEE SI WA ҹ - Come here...hurry up!
The use of SI WA indicates more force/impoliteness than if it's not used. A politer way of saying 'Come here!' would be MA NEE SI KHRAP ҹԤѺ.

You can hear an example of SI in the Thai film The Closet where the mother tells her son to wake up:
TEUN SI LOOK ١ - Wake up child!

This particle means, inter alia... 'once/just this once' and is similar in usage to NOI (see above). It is used after a verb, often in the imperative mood, to lessen the degree of imposition, by indicating that the action has to be performed only once.
TORT THEE ɷ - Sorry! (excuse me).
KHOR PAI THEE - 价 - Can you let me pass.
CHUAY PIT WITHAYOO THEE - »ԴԷط - Please turn off the radio.
PURT webcam EEK THEE SI Դաի - Turn on your webcam again.
YOO MAI...MEE PAN-HA GEE-OW GAP KHAWM ...CHUAY THEE KHA ...ջѭǡѺ...·դ - Are you there? I've got a problem with my computer. Please help me.

THUH! (l)/THUHT (l) /Դ
Please; do; let us. Adds mild emphasis at the end of requests, orders and suggestions.
Linguistically speaking, THUH is referred to as a hortative particle, so-called because it exhorts (urges) somebody to do something.
PAI GAN THUH - 仡ѹ - Let's go!
MA THUH POM JA RAW KHUN - ͤس - Come here. I'll wait for you.
PAI DURN LEN GAN THUH - Թ蹡ѹ - Let's go for a walk.
PLIAN CHEU THUH KHRAP ¹ФѺ - Please change your name!
PAI THEE HAWNG KHAWNG PHOM GAN THUH 价ͧͧѹ - Let's go to my place.
PAI THAEK-SEE GAN THUH - 硫ѹ - Let's take a taxi together.

Apparently, THUH is more colloquial/informal and used in modern Thai. THUHT Դ is more formal and used in writing.

One source I've seen indicates THUH/THUHT /Դ is slightly politer than SI , although both are polite particles.

You can hear an example of its use in the Thai film, Tears of the Black Tiger, where DAM says to his childhood sweetheart/girlfriend RAMPOEY :
GLAP DEE GWADEEOW MEUT KHAM JA DOHN ET AOPAPAI THUH Ѻա ״Өⴹ - We'd better go. It's nearly dark already. We'll get a bollocking. Let's go!

See also the related entry in this table for HUR , which is a less formal version of THUH .

There are 3 forms of UH-EE, with different spellings and tones UH-EE , UH-EE (l) and UH-EE (r) :

This is a particle placed at the end of a verse of poetry, verse or discourse.

Reference 3, p. 1064:
The end, finis, a particle used to end a piece of verse

Reference 4, p. 578:
A poetical closing particle; a particle used in direct address, o, oh Шѹ - Oh moon!...

KHWAN UH-EE...KHWAN UH-EE...KHWAN MA ѭ...ѭ...ѭ - Oh KHWAN...Oh KHWANCome back! - Let your tutelary spirit return to you! (said by a mother when she picks her child up when he is frightened after a fall). (Reference 6).

UH-EE (l)
A question-word used in both writing and speech. It can be used by both men and women. Some Thais Ive talked to say that its used more by women, others say men use it equally. Its used to make questions sound less abrupt and cuter sounding, to show that you're close and care, and for politeness.
While it is still used in modern Thai, its not one of the more common particles and is not used that often.

Reference 3, p.1064:
A particle used after the interrogative word in a question or a riddle NAI GRA-PAO KHAWNG CHAN MEE ARI UH-EE 㹡Ңͧѹ - Can you tell me whats in my pocket?...

..㹡Ңͧѹ - Guess what I've got in my pocket?! [Said with a cute lilting voice.]
cf ..㹡Ңͧѹ ..- What's in my pocket? [No lilt.] (Reference 7).

KHRAI UH-EE - I wonder who that can be?
ARAI UH-EE - I wonder what it can be?
THAM ARAI YOO UH-EE - - What are you doing?

NOM SAM-RAP DEK DOH WA 1 KHUAP KHEUN PAI NAI THAWNG TALAHT MEE MAHK MAI THANG NOM PONG LAE NOM NAM LEUAK CHANIT NAI DEE UH-EE Ѻ 1 Ǻ㹷ͧҴҡ 駹й ͡Դ˹ -There are many kinds of milk available for children aged above 1 year, in both powdered and liquid form. Which kind is the best? (reference 8).

UH-EE (r)
Reference 3, p. 1064:
A particle used after a vocative by a man or woman, usually denoting familiarity or affection;
LOOK UH-EE JAO JA TAWNG RA-WANG TUA HAI JONG NAK ١ Ҩеͧѧ騧˹ѡ - My son, you have to be very, very careful.

Reference 4, p. 578: A sound denoting affection [like] dear, my dear (boy, girl, son etc).

LOOK UH-EE THEUNG WELA AHP-NAM LAEW ١ ֧Һ - Hey little darling, it's time for your bath! (reference 7).

WA (h)/WA (f)/WOEY (h) //
Tacked onto the end of a sentence in place of the more polite KHRAP/KHA Ѻ// to indicate variously: familiarity, contempt, dislike, disgust, annoyance, anger. Use with caution.
Sometimes spelt WA! (l) or WA (l) .
One example where you might use it: Youre woken up from your slumbers by someone shaking you awake to tell you something. You might irritably snap: ARAI WA ? - (What is it?), through half-closed eyes.

More examples:
ARAI WA - What the hell do you want?

PAI NAI MA WA...BAWK LAEW CHAI MAI WAH YAH MA SAI ˹...͡ - Where the hell have you been? I've told you before, haven't I, not to be late.

MAWNG ARAI WA ͧ - What the hell are you looking at?

MAI MEE TANG KHA NAM MAN ROT WA յѧҹѹö - I've got no bloody petrol money!

GUHT ARAI KEUN WA Դâ - What the hell is happening?

Reference (1), P. 129:
An impolite or informal particle, used to indicate rudeness, anger and aggressiveness when speaking to strangers, or intimacy with close friends of equal status; WA (h) is used with questions and WA (f)/WOEY (h) / with statements; more common with male speech but can be used by females; it is the particle favoured by baddies on the big screen, used by drinking friends as the evening progresses, and the one to snarl in the expression THAM ARAI WA ? ('What the hell are you doing?') if you have the misfortune to encounter an intruder in the house.

Reference (2), P. 300:
(/) adds emphasis. It isn't polite and is used only with friends or when you're very angry.

You can hear an example of WA in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE Ҷþ麹 said by one of the girls when she tries unsuccessfully to hail a taxi and it just drives past without stopping:
ARAI WA - What the hell!?

You can hear an example of WOEY in the Thai film JAN GA-PHAW ѹо when one of the guests angrily makes his views about the resort clear:
JA HAI GOO THON YOO GAP REE-SORT PHEE NEE EEK ROR GOO MAI AOW WOI ٷѺ췼ԧա - I'm not staying another minute in this spooky old dump. No way!

As a final point it should be noted that with strangers, WA may well be taken as rude, but with friends and intimates this is not necessarily so. Here it can be a particle signifying familiarity or closeness, used in place of the more formal KHA/KHRAP. I have seen fairly innocuous conversations between friends peppered with WA, there's no real disagreement going on, it's just used in place of the politer KHA/KHRAP particles. Context determines its meaning.
Here's an example of two males (perhaps drinking buddies) discussing a member of the opposite sex:
NAI WAH PHOO-YING KON NEE SUAY MAI WA Ҽ˭ԧ - Do you think this girl is beautiful?
MAI ROO WA - No idea. (reference 9).
Here WA is used as a kind of bonding particle and indicates that the two men are close enough so that it can be used without causing offence.

YA (h)/YA (f) /
Reference (1), P. 129: An impolite or informal particle, similar to WA (h)/WA (f) (see entry above), but restricted in usage to female speakers. Used in spoken Thai.
Sometimes used by GATOEYs and gays too.

I saw one example of its usage in an Internet chat room, used by a young woman who was being asked to leave the main communal chat room and enter into a private chat ('whisper') by another chatter:
THUR SI YA GRASIP GRASAHP THANG KHEUN NACHAN MAI KUI GRASIP YA ͫ ЫԺЫҺ駤׹ ѹ¡ЫԺ - Hey, you. Whispering all night. I don't chat in whisper!
The use of YA shows her annoyance.

Although not as rude as WA, YA is still impolite. It can also convey a sense of superiority or PRA-CHOT Ъ to a sentence (PRA-CHOT Ъ - v. to mock, ridicule, deride, treat contemptuously, to be sarcastic).
KHAO CHEU Daniel YA MAI CHAI Dariel Ҫ - Hes called Daniel, not Dariel.
Here the use of YA conveys a sense of Didnt you know that?/You dont know anything!

YA is also frequently the particle of choice for the evil leading ladies in Thai soap operas.

Can also be used to express a sense of mock superiority or teasing, when used in playful banter between friends.

Exclamatory Particle Index

AH! NA!/AH (f)-NA! й/ҹ
AOW (f)
AW (f)
AW (r)
CHIP (l) HAI (r) Ժ
EH (r)
GEW (h) GEW (h)
HAN! (f)-NAE! (f)
HOH (r) - See entry for OH (f) - HO
HUH (h) /HUH
HUH-EE (h)
MAE (r)
MAN (l) SAI (f)
NGA!/NGA! (f) /
OH (f) - HO
OO-EE! (h)
PA! (h)
PAEW (l)
TAI (h)/TAI (h) LAEW (h)/TAI (h) JING //¨ԧ
THO (f)
UH-EE (h)
WAH (h)
WAI (h)
YAY (h)

Exclamatory Particle List

AH! NA!/AH (f)-NA! й/ҹ
Slang word used in speech and Internet chat rooms. Not really a particle, but I have included it nevertheless since it is quite common in Thai but tends not to be listed in dictionaries. Usually used on its own, and not at the end of a sentence. Can be translated variously as "Oh, I see", "Ah ha", "Oh yeah", "Uhm" or "Hmm". 'Used mainly by young people (teenagers) trying to sound cute'.
A: WAN NEE PAI TALAAT ѹ仵Ҵ - I'm going to the market today.
B: AH NA й - Ah ha.

AOW (f)
Oh! - indicates surprise/something unexpected (in a not necessarily positive way) eg you might say you're leaving, and someone may exclaim: AOW...JA PAI LAEW ROR - Oh! You're leaving already?
Can be used by both males and females.
Another example:
AOW THAM-MAI MAI PAI LA ... - Oh! Why didn't you go?
The AOW here indicates surprise - you just discovered the person hadn't gone somewhere (but you had expected them to go).

AW (f)
Yes, uh-huh, I see, is that so, Ah! (now I understand - realisation).

AW (r)
Oh, I see.

Exclamation of delight/joy like: Hurray, hurrah; hooray, hip hip hooray!
Can also be spelt CHA-YO .
CHAI-YO...JAWNG DAI LAEW KHAWT BAED SUAN LUM WAN PHUT 2-4 THUM KRAI SON-JAI BAHNG KHRAP ..ͧ Ẵǹ ѹظ 2-4 ʹ㨺ҧѺ - Hooray! Booked a badminton court at Lumpini Park on Wednesday between 8 and 10 PM. Anyone interested? (seen on a badminton internet message board).
Also seen on the Singha beer TV advert when they celebrate.

CHIP (l) HAI (r) Ժ
A slang emphasis word roughly equivalent to "Damn!" or "Fuck!"
CHIP HAI Ժ - God damn!; Shit!
HEW CHIP HAI ǩԺ - I'm damn hungry!
NAO CHIP HAI ˹ǩԺ - It's damn cold!
To my ear, CHIP Ժ sounds as though it's pronounced mid (or high tone) in normal conversation.

EH (r)
Uh? (For when you can't remember something or figure it out).
ѹ˹ - Uh?Where's it gone?

GEW (h) GEW (h)
This is a slang word used amongst friends for gentle teasing, similar to the English expression 'Na-na nana-na!'
You might say this to your friend when eg he/she makes a mistake, gets an answer wrong, or if you beat them in a race etc.
GEW GEW NAH MAI AI ˹ - Na-na nana-na!...Shame on you!

Onomatopoeia from the sound of screaming.
Mainly used by girls to express variously fear, surprise, excitement, delight etc. eg a girl may GREET when she sees a ghost, or at a pop concert etc.
Sometimes spelt , , մ etc.

HAN! (f)-NAE! (f)
An exclamation of surprise, on discovering a secret.
Reference 4:
Look at you!; How about that!

A: KHUN ROO MAINOI LEN CHOO س...蹪 - Did you know, NOI's having an affair?
B: HAN NAE - How about that!

You can hear an example of HAN NAE in the film Tears of the Black Tiger, where GO mocks DAM about his female friend RAMPOEY :
HAN NAE...FAEN AI DAM NEE JAI GLA DEE WOI ...Όӹ㨡Ҵ - Well, how about that DAM, you've got yourself a brave girlfriend there!

HUH (h) /HUH
Onomatopoeia from the sound of sighing.
Would use it when you are eg dissatisfied/bored/relieved/frustrated with something.

HUR! RAK KON MEE JAO KHAWNG...TAM NGAI DEE WA? ! ѡҢͧ 䧴 ? Sigh!...I love someone who's already taken. What the hell can I do about it?

HUR!! REUANG MAN NA-SAO !! ͧѹ - Sigh. It's a sad story.

HUR...KHAO PAI LAEW ... - Whew! (relief) She's gone.

Dictionaries tend to spell it / but I have also come across it spelt HUR (f) .

HUH-EE (h)
Hey! (calling attention). Not necessarily polite.
HUR-EE...MUAH LAEW...THAM DEE DEE DEH ......Ӵ - Hey, that's wrong. Do it properly!
HUR-EE...YA MA YOONG GAP FAEN PHOM SI ...觡ѺΌ - Hey! Don't mess with my girlfriend!

MAE (r)
Jeez!, my goodness! (surprise/admiration).
Used by both genders.
MAE GOR PIM THAI DAI NEE NA...THAM-MAI THEUNG MAI YAWM PHUT LA ֧ش - Jeez! You can type Thai! Why didnt you say?

Can also be used to convey sarcasm or that you're joking
MAE KHIT WA NANG SAO THAI Դҹҧ - Jeez, thought you were Miss Thailand!!!

Expression/exclamation, roughly equivalent to "You're so cute, I could eat you!"
You will often see Thai women say this while cuddling a baby and giving him/her an affectionate little pinch on the cheek.
Often also used by Thai females to their boyfriends, when canoodling and cuddling.
Can be used by both males and females.

MAN (l) SAI (f)
Dictionaries invariably translate this as v. To be disgusted with but colloquially the most frequent use I see is as an expression/exclamation meaning "Don't be cute!", "Tone it down a little!" or "That's a little over-the-top!"
This appears to be a case where the Thai language is richer than the English language since there doesn't seem to be any simple direct translation of MAN SAI into English.
It's used when you think someone is over-acting, and can be used as a mild rebuke of someone acting too cute or charming e.g. trying to crawl to the boss, kissing or being too romantic with your partner in public, using too sweet expressions, wearing strange clothes, etc.
If SOMCHAI and OI were always kissing and holding hands in public, someone might remark to their friend:
MAN SAI - That's a bit much. I wish they'd tone it down a little!

Or if someone is trying to suck up to somebody too much (like to the boss, or your mother-in-law, to win Brownie points), people might gossip:
OO-EE MAN SAI...MAN SAI JING JING ...ԧ - Oh man you got to be kidding me, can you believe this guy? (reference7).

An example I saw in an internet chat room:
Woman: KHOR DOO ROOP KHUN DAI MAI KHA ʹٻس - Can I see your photo?
Man: NEE KRAP Ѻ - Here it is.
Woman: MAN LEK GURN PAI ѹԹ - But it's so small...
Man: ROOP LEK TAE JAI DEE ٻ㨴 ;-) - Small photo, but big heart/kind-hearted! ;-)
Woman: MAN SAI - Don't be cute!

DI-CHAN MAN SAI THUR MAHK THEE THAM GARIYA DEE JAI GURN KHUAN MEUA KHAO CHUAN THUR PAI GIN KHAO DUAY ԩѹҡӡҴԹ Ҫǹ仡ԹǴ - I thought her show of delight was so over-the-top when he asked her out for a meal. (reference 12).

NGA!/NGA! (f) /
An exclamation-slang word. Used mainly in chat rooms, comics etc. Can be used in speech too, but not so common. Indicates surprise eg someone may say something surprising, and the listener may reply: ARAI NGA ç (or just NGA ), meaning 'What???'.
A : KHAO CHORP KHAE JA-MOOK ҪͺШ١ - He's always picking his nose.
B: NGA!!!! - Ugh! What!!!/Ugh! Disgusting!!!

Although it can be used by any age group, NGA / is mainly used by teenagers.
Apparently its used as a response to show you understand whats been said to you but the answers not what you were expecting and youre momentarily not quite sure how to respond.
A: KHUN AH-YOO THAO RAI KHRAP سäѺ - How old are you?
A: NGA (A thought B was much younger since she only looks 20).

A: WAN NEE KHUN YAHK THAHN ARAI PEN AHAHN YEN KHA ѹسҡҹ繤 - What would you like for dinner?
B: PHOM YAHK LAWNG THAHN NGOO PHAT GA-PHAO ѹҡͧҹټѴ - I would like to eat stir fried snake with basil.

I also sometimes see it used in internet chat room quizzes. When the correct answer is finally announced, some of the chatters say NGA in response to seeing the correct answer.

NGA can also be spelt .
Sometimes NGA also appears to be used in a similar way to the English UHM - i.e. just used as a sound to express uncertainty or fill a lull in a conversation.

OH (f) - HO
Wow!, what about that! Show's amazement/surprise. You will sometimes hear football pundits using this while commentating on an exciting game.
Sometimes it's shortened to just HO (r) .
OH-HO...SEK-SEE JING JING ...硫ԧ - Wow! That's really sexy! (heard said by a Thai male watching a cute Thai girl dancing in a club).
Note that in normal conversation the tones of OH-HO appear to be falling-rising ie as though it's spelt .

OO-EE! (h)
Ouch!, oops!, Oh! (pain, mishap, tired, fed up, surprise).
Mainly used by women.
OO-EE...PHOOT ARAI AWK PAI ...ٴ͡ - Oops! What have I just said?! (slip of the tongue).
OO-EE...CHAN LEUM SEU AEP-PHUHN KHA ! ѹͻŤ - Oh! I forgot to buy some apples.
OO-EE...YING KHIT YING SA-YAWNG ...觤Դͧ - Oh my! The more I think about it, the more frightening it becomes.

PA! (h) Huh! (when angry or annoyed).
PA KHAE NEE ENG ROR ͧ - Huh! Is that all?

PAEW (l)
You're unlikely to find this word in a dictionary; it's a slang word used mainly by young people (up to 30 years old, maybe) meaning to be disappointed, to be frustrated, to lose face, to be broken-faced.
It's often used when you make a mistake in front of other people eg a pupil, answering a teacher's question incorrectly in front of the class, may be tempted to say PAEW .
It's derived from the word PAEW (f) , meaning deflated, or to be flat (like a balloon).
A: KHUN DOO LAW JANG سͨѧ - You look very handsome.
B: KHORP KHUN KHRAP ͺسѺ - Thank you. (Smiling and accepting the compliment).
A: TAE KHUN DOO GAE PAI NOI NA س˹¹ - But...you look a little old.
B: PAEW !! (Right now you feel deflated, like a punctured balloon).

A: PEN FAEN GAN DAI MAI Όѹ - Do you want to be my girlfriend?
B: KOR THOTMEE FAEN LAEW ...Ό - Sorry, I'm already going out with someone.
A: PAEW !!
(Above 2 examples - reference 9).

PAEW NA TAEK LA-EE-UT LUR-EE AH KRAP !!!!˹ᵡ´Фú - PAEW - I lost a lot of face there (was really embarrassed).

POM TANG JAI PAI PHAK THEE-NAN KHRAP THO PAI SAWP THAHM GAWN KHAO GAW BORK WA JAWNG MAI DAI HAI LAWNG PAI DOO EHNG LAEW GAN WA WAHNG REU PLAOPAW PHOM PAI THEUNG GAW REE PAI THEE NEE LUH-EETAE KHAO BAWK WA MAI RAP KON THAIPAEWTHAM HAI PHOM ROO-SEUK YAE MAHK LUH-EE 㨨仾ѡ蹹ФѺ ͺ͹ҡ͡Ҩͧͧ仴ͧǡѹҧ ͼ件֧价 Һ͡Ѻ ! ֡ҡ - I had intended to stay there. So I phoned up and they said you can't book in advance, you have to turn up in person and see if anything's free. But when I arrived there, they said we don't accept Thais. How frustrating! I felt really awful.

CHAN HA RAHN AROI THEE PHEE TOM KUR-EE GIN SOOT THAIGOR HA JUR TAE RAN PITGAW TAWNG GLAP PAI PEUNG RAHN DUHM TRONG KHAHM ROHNG RAEM ѹҹ·¡Թش¡ҹԴ ...ͧѺ仾ҹçç - I was looking for that delicious restaurant that TOM ate at last time. I found it but it was closed. How frustrating! So I had to go back to the restaurant opposite my hotel.

TAI (h)/TAI (h) LAEW (h)/TAI (h) JING //¨ԧ
Oh no!, what a mess!, good Lord! (shock, horror), oh my God!, I don't believe it!
Used mainly by females, where it has a high tone.

THO (f)
Oh my God! (short for the colloquial expression PHOOT THO ش). Archaic and rarely used in modern Thai.

UH-EE (h)
Reference 4, p. 578:
Exclamation uttered on making a mistake, No! I mean

Reference 3, p. 1064:
An exclamation expressing sudden surprise or sudden discovery, sometimes equivalent to the parenthetic(al) I mean; PHOO-YING - UH-EE - SOO-PHARP SA-TREE - PHOO NEUNG DAI MA HA PHOM THEE THAM NGAAN - ˭ԧ - - Ҿʵ - ˹Ҽӧҹ - A girl, I mean a lady, came to see me at work.

WAH (h)
Oh no!, Shit!, Damn! (reference 4).
Can be used by both males and females.
WAH...JA SAWP PRUNG NEE ! ͺ觹 - Oh no! I've got exams tomorrow.

WAH...PHRUNG NEE PURT TUHM LAEW ROR...PHUHNG PIT TUHM PAI YOK YOK EHNG 觹Դ...觻Դ¡ ͧ - Damn!...School starts tomorrow does it? We only just closed for the holidays!

WAI (h)
Eek!; Oh! (reference 4).
WAI...PEN LAMOK - Eek!It's obscene! (Note Thai slang spelling here of etc).

Dictionaries often translate this as retribution, fate etc but colloquially the most frequent use I see seems to be as an exclamatory particle meaning Jesus!, God Almighty!, Damn!, How awful! etc.
In speech, sometimes abbreviated to just GAM or WEN .
An example of when you might use it is when eg your car won't start you might bang the bonnet (hood) and in frustration say GAM !
In chat rooms sometimes abbreviated/spelt as GAM , WEN or WENG-GAM ǧ.

YAY (h)
Exclamation used when feeling delighted. A bit like, Yes! or Yahoo!
YAY...HAI PUAY LAEW...DEE JAI JANG »Ǵ㨨ѧ - Yes! Im feeling better now. Im so happy!

YAY WAN THEE 31 P.K. NEE KROP 22 PEE LAEW SI NA ѹ 31 ..ú 22 Թ - Yahoo! I'll be 22 this May 31st.


Tones and Vowel Lengths
I have used the following abbreviations to represent the five tones of Central Thai in transliterations:
Low (l); high (h); falling (f); rising (r); mid - .
An exclamation mark at the end of a transliteration indicates a short vowel length as opposed to a long one
SI! (h) (short vowel length; high tone).
NOI (l) ˹ (long vowel length, low tone).


1. Thai - An Essential Grammar - David Smyth (2002) P.125-137.
2. Thai Reference Grammar - The Structure of Spoken Thai - James Higbie and Snea Thinsan (2003) P.287-300.
3. So Sethaputra's Thai - English Dictionary (1996?)
4. Domnern-Sathiengpong Thai English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, Amarin (1999).
5. http://www.bangkokpost.com/education/site2003/puoc0703.htm.
6. http://www.thaiarc.tu.ac.th/host/thaiarc/thai/peansiri.htm (2002) .
7. Message forum at http://www.thailandguidebook.com/cgi-bin/forum/ikonboard.cgi (2003).
8. http://www.meadjohnson.bms.co.th/t_momch3.htm (2004).
9. http://www.thaivisa.com/forum/index.php.
10. http://www.thai-language.com.
11. http://www.seasite.niu.edu/thai/thaidict/thailex8.htm.
12. Lexitron Online dictionary.
13. Pragmatic Characteristics of Infant Directed Speech, Sudaporn Luksaneeyanawin et al, Linguistics Research Unit, Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University http://tinyurl.com/bysl6.


Thanks are due to KHUN YULAN for proof-reading this material and her helpful suggestions, comments and corrections.

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